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Thermosets, also called duroplasts, retain their form even when warming up and, furthermore, the heating of thermosets is part of the production process that hardens them. Also, the hardened thermosets do not melt but are simply destroyed at a certain temperature. As a classical example, the plastic Bakelite belongs to this group. The presence of various reactive groups, that can be used for chemical reactions, carboxyl, aromatic and aliphatic hydroxyl or others, is important for the reactivity and the properties in adhesive applications. Typical thermosets where lignin can be used are phenolic resins, polyurethanes and epoxies.
Lignin is an obvious candidate as a phenol substitute in phenol formaldehyde resins. Recent progresses have been reported with modified lignin powders originating from novel processes (like organosolv pulping and non wood raw materials). These products can replace up to 50% of the phenol formaldehyde resin in adhesives in the different application fields of phenolic resins.
The use of lignin in polyurethane copolymers is exploiting the presence of hydroxyl groups (aliphatic and aromatic). Lignin can be used without any preliminary chemical modification. It then functions as crosslinker or additive (flame retardant) in polyurethane foam. Moreover, lignin oxypropylation can produce liquid polyol mixtures of lower viscosity that are of great interest in polyurethane.
Epoxy blends are other challenging applications, which have already been extensively studied. The latest was reported by a laboratory of IBM for the production of a printed wiring board that had all the required properties. The composition containing lignin, an epoxy resin and an initiator was utilized to prepare prepregs and then processed by conventional methods.
A big amount of publications is available on these topics (see references and overview in Malherbe 2010, pp. 5).

A recent topic with several postings is the possible role of lignin in the furan chemistry as additive to such resins or as a component in the polymerisation of furfuryl alcohol.

Summaries, Overviews and Priority Papers
Lignin chemistry and selected applications (Overview paper)
Internal work for ILI Umbrella 2010
Roger Malherbe, Alfred Abächerli - ILI, Lausanne, Switzerland
Utilisation of Lignin in fiber board gluing (Proceedings Reprint)
ILI Forum 6, Wageningen 2003
P. Qvintus-Leino - VTT Processes, Finland

Lignin in blends with synthetic polymers (Slides)
Lignin in blends with synthetic polymers (Proceedings Reprint)
ILI Forum 8, Rome 2007
D. Feldman, D.Banu - Concordia University, Canada

Bio-based resins for the manufacture of printed wiring boards (Proceedings Reprint)
ILI Forum 3, Seedorf-Fribourg 1996
Laura L. Kosbar, Jeffrey Gelorme - IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, USA

Lignin as a renewable aromatic resource for the chemical industry (PhD)
PhD Thesis 2011
R. Gosselink - Wageningen University, The Netherlands
Rethinking Biorefinery Lignins: Breaking dogmas (Proceedings)
14th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp (EWLP), Grenoble, France, 2016
M. Balakshin, E. Capanema - Renmatix Inc, King of Prussia, PA, U.S.A
Technical note on Lignins and their applications (Leaflet)
BIOCORE FP7 project, 2012
Issue 3 of BIOCORE Newsletter
BIOCORE FP7 project, 2013
see p.2, phenolic resins, Polyurethanes (rigid foams, elastomers)

Enzymatic Lignin modification for resin applications (Proceedings Reprint)
Biorenew project, INTB Ghent 2009
S. Lepifre, P. Bono, A. Abächerli, J.H. Lora - GreenValue SA, Lausanne, Switzerland

Use of sulfur-free Lignin in wood adhesives: Industrial experiences and environmental impacts (Paper)
Workshop in the frame of the EU project WOODPRO, Riga, Latvia, 2005
J.H. Lora - Granit Recherche Développement SA, Lausanne, Switzerland

Organosolv Lignin in phenol formaldehyde resins - Evaluation of curing behaviour and wood bonding effectiveness (Proceedings Reprint)
Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), 2011, Stockholm, Sweden
R. Lehnen - vTI, Institute for Wood Technology and Wood Biology, Hamburg, Germany
M. Heitmann, A. Flötotto - University of Hamburg, Germany

Structure-function relationships in the phenolation of Lignins from different sources (Paper)
ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 2015
Jacob Podschun, Bodo Saake - University of Hamburg, Germany
Ralph Lehnen, Alexander Stücker - Thünen Institute of Wood Research, Hamburg, Germany

Reactivity enhancement of organosolv Lignin by phenolation for improved bio-based thermosets (Paper)
2015, European Polymer Journal
Jacob Podschun, Bodo Saake - University of Hamburg, Germany
Ralph Lehnen - Thünen Institute of Wood Research, Hamburg, Germany

Lignin-based resol resins: effect of Lignin fractionation (Proceedings)
14th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp (EWLP), Grenoble, France, 2016
I. Egüés, A. Olasagasti, X. Erdocia, P. L. de Hoyos, S.H. Fuentes, J. Labidi - University of the
Basque Country, Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain
Kraft Lignin recovery and its use in the preparation of Lignin-based phenol formaldehyde resins for plywood (Paper)
Cellulose chemistry and technology (CCT) 2012
L. Kouisni, Y. Fang, M. Paleologou - FPInnovations, Pointe-Claire, Canada
B. Ahvazi, J. Hawari - Biotechnology Research Institute, Montreal, Canada
Y. Zhang, X.-M. Wang - FPInnovations, Franquet, Canada
Usage of Lignin in self-binding fibreboards (Proceedings)
14th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp (EWLP), Grenoble, France, 2016
R. Tupciauskas, A. Veveris, M. Andzs, J. Abolins, J. Gravitis - Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry, Riga, Latvia
Value from Lignin - Promises, challenges and breakthroughs (Slides)
Contains information on modification for up to 80% phenol replacement, VTT Webinar, 2016
Tiina Liitiä, Tarja Tamminen - VTT, Finland
On lignin reactivity quantification for lignin substitution of phenol in preparation of phenol- formaldehyde polymer (Proceedings)
Northern Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), Stockholm 2014
M. Wang, E. Sjöholm, J. Li - Innventia AB, Stockholm, Schweden and Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden

Isocyanate modified Lignins for formulations of Novolac resins (Slides)
Isocyanate modified Lignins for formulations of Novolac resins (Proceedings Reprint)
ILI Forum 7, Barcelona 2005
J. Labidi, A. Tejado, G. Kortaberria, I. Mondragon - University of the Basque Country, Spain
J.M. Echeverria - Bakelite Iberica, Hernani, Spain

La Biolignine(TM): Structure et Application à l'elaboration de résine époxy (PhD)
PhD in French, 2011
Pulication References for non French readers (References)
2013
G.-H. Delmas, CIVM Biomass Technologies, Levallois Perret , France
Biomass-based polyols through oxyalkylation of organosolv Lignin by propylene carbonate (Proceedings)
13th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp (EWLP), Sevilla, Spain, 2014
R. Lehnen - Thünen Institute of Wood Research, Hamburg, Germany
I. Kühnel, J. Podschun, B. Saake - University of Hamburg, Germany
Functionality and physical-chemical characteristics of wheat straw Lignin derivatives in the oxypropylation process (Proceedings)
13th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp (EWLP), Sevilla, Spain, 2014
A. Arshanitsa, L. Vevere, G. Telisheva, O. Bikovens, A. Jablonski - Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry, Riga, Latvia
R.J.A. Gosselink - Wageningen University, The Netherlands
Lignin-based polyurethanes: Characterisation, synthesis and applications (PhD)
Doctoral thesis 2009
Carolina Cateto, Porto University, Portugal
Polyurethane foam based on hydrolysis Lignin (Proceedings)
14th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp (EWLP), Grenoble, France, 2016
S. Krutov, E. Ipatova - Saint-Petersburg State Forest Technical University, Russian Federation
D. Kosyakov - Lomonosov Northern (Arctic) Federal University, Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation

Epoxy resins from Lignin-derived phenols (Poster)
Italic 5 and COST FP0602, Varenna Italy, 2009
Scion, Rotorua, New Zealand
D.J. van de Pas, K.M. Torr, and R.H. Newman - Scion, Rotorua, New Zealand

Functional polymers derived from lignosulfonates (Proceedings)
Northern Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), Stockholm 2014
A. Ortner, G. S. Nyanhongo, G. M. Guebitz - University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Tulln, Austria
K. Hofer, W. Bauer - Graz University of Technology, Austria

Enzymatic modification of eucalypt kraft lignin by laccase (Proceedings Reprint)
Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), 2011, Stockholm, Sweden
S. Gouveia, M.C. Fernandez, M.A. Sanroman, D. Moldes - Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Spain

Lignin-based rigid polyurethane foams with improved biodegradation (Paper)
Journal of Cellular Plastics, 2014
C.A. Cateto, M.F. Barreiro - Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Portugal
A.E. Rodriguez - Porto University, Portugal
M.N. Belgacem - EFPG-INPG, St.Martin d'Hères, France
C. Ottati, M. Lopretti - Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay

An integrated process to produce vanillin and Lignin-based polyurethanes from Kraft Lignin (Paper)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 2009
C.A. Cateto, M.F. Barreiro - Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Portugal
E.A. Borges da Silva, M. Zabkova, J.D. Araujo, A.E. Rodriguez - Porto University, Portugal
M.N. Belgacem - EFPG-INPG, St.Martin d'Hères, France

Biorenewable and biodegradable tunicate nanocellulose-starch-lignin composite film (Proceedings)
14th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp (EWLP), Grenoble, France, 2016
J. Li, Y. Zhao - KTH, Stockholm, Sweden
J.-M. Bouquet, Th. Magnesen, Ch. Troedsson, E.M. Thompson, University of Bergen Norway

Lignin-based polyurethane materials (Proceedings Reprint)
10th International Chemical and Biological Engineering Conference (CHEMPOR), Braga, Portugal, 2008
Carolina Cateto, Filomena Barreiro - Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Portugal
Alirio Rodriguez - Porto University, Portugal
Naceur Belgacem - EFPG-INPG, St.Martin d'Hères, France

Recent Postings
Lignin-based resol resins: effect of Lignin fractionation (Proceedings)
14th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp (EWLP), Grenoble, France, 2016
I. Egüés, A. Olasagasti, X. Erdocia, P. L. de Hoyos, S.H. Fuentes, J. Labidi - University of the
Basque Country, Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain
Rethinking Biorefinery Lignins: Breaking dogmas (Proceedings)
14th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp (EWLP), Grenoble, France, 2016
M. Balakshin, E. Capanema - Renmatix Inc, King of Prussia, PA, U.S.A
Biorenewable and biodegradable tunicate nanocellulose-starch-lignin composite film (Proceedings)
14th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp (EWLP), Grenoble, France, 2016
J. Li, Y. Zhao - KTH, Stockholm, Sweden
J.-M. Bouquet, Th. Magnesen, Ch. Troedsson, E.M. Thompson, University of Bergen Norway
Usage of Lignin in self-binding fibreboards (Proceedings)
14th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp (EWLP), Grenoble, France, 2016
R. Tupciauskas, A. Veveris, M. Andzs, J. Abolins, J. Gravitis - Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry, Riga, Latvia
Value from Lignin - Promises, challenges and breakthroughs (Slides)
Contains information on modification for up to 80% phenol replacement, VTT Webinar, 2016
Tiina Liitiä, Tarja Tamminen - VTT, Finland
Polyurethane foam based on hydrolysis Lignin (Proceedings)
14th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp (EWLP), Grenoble, France, 2016
S. Krutov, E. Ipatova - Saint-Petersburg State Forest Technical University, Russian Federation
D. Kosyakov - Lomonosov Northern (Arctic) Federal University, Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation

Structure-function relationships in the phenolation of Lignins from different sources (Paper)
ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 2015
Jacob Podschun, Bodo Saake - University of Hamburg, Germany
Ralph Lehnen, Alexander Stücker - Thünen Institute of Wood Research, Hamburg, Germany

Reactivity enhancement of organosolv Lignin by phenolation for improved bio-based thermosets (Paper)
2015, European Polymer Journal
Jacob Podschun, Bodo Saake - University of Hamburg, Germany
Ralph Lehnen - Thünen Institute of Wood Research, Hamburg, Germany

Lignin-based rigid polyurethane foams with improved biodegradation (Paper)
Journal of Cellular Plastics, 2014
C.A. Cateto, M.F. Barreiro - Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Portugal
A.E. Rodriguez - Porto University, Portugal
M.N. Belgacem - EFPG-INPG, St.Martin d'Hères, France
C. Ottati, M. Lopretti - Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay

An integrated process to produce vanillin and Lignin-based polyurethanes from Kraft Lignin (Paper)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 2009
C.A. Cateto, M.F. Barreiro - Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Portugal
E.A. Borges da Silva, M. Zabkova, J.D. Araujo, A.E. Rodriguez - Porto University, Portugal
M.N. Belgacem - EFPG-INPG, St.Martin d'Hères, France

Functional polymers derived from Lignosulfonates (Proceedings)
Northern Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), Stockholm 2014
A. Ortner, G. S. Nyanhongo, G. M. Guebitz - University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Tulln, Austria
K. Hofer, W. Bauer - Graz University of Technology, Austria
Database
Conversion of Lignin into high-valued Lignin-Phenol-Formaldehyde (LPF) Resin adhesive and improving the economics of the biorefinery (Proceedings)
13th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp (EWLP), Sevilla, Spain, 2014
T.-Q. Yuan, S. Yang, F. Xu, R.-C. Sun - Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China
Funaoka Lignin facilitating sustainable and recyclable biocomposites for transportation (Proceedings Reprint)
Northern Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), Helsinki 2012
K. Kolppo - OY Scandinavian Colloids Ltd., Tampere, Finland
M. Funaoka - Mie University, Japan
J. Vuorinen - Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland
Wood adhesives from agricultural by-products: Lignins and Tannins for the elaboration of particleboards (Paper)
Cellulose chemistry and technology (CCT) 2012
L. Ping, Z. D. Guo - Beijing Forestry University, China
F. Gambier, A. Pizzi, N. Brosse, Lorraine University, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France

Potential lignin products from the wood biorefinery (Proceedings Reprint)
MDF and HDF Boards, p. 154, Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), 2011, Stockholm, Sweden
K. Lindgren, F. Alvarado, K. Olander, F. Öhman- Innventia AB, Stockholm, Schweden

Introduction of tannin extracts in adhesive formulations for fibreboards: evaluation of the potential of tannins from several industrial wood barks (Poster)
Italic5, Varenna, 2009
F. Bertaud, Ch. Balme, M. Petit-Conil - Centre Technique du Papier (CTP), Grenoble, France
S. Tapin-Lingua, M. Petit-Conil - Institute FCBA, Grenoble, France
A. Pizzi - Université de Nancy, Epinal, France

Lignin blends with polyurethane-containing lactate segments. Properties and enzymatic degradation effects (Paper)
Cellulose chemistry and technology (CCT) 2011
V. I. Popa - Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania
L. Ignat, M. Ignat, E. Stoica, C. Ciobanu - Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi, Romania

Enzymatic processing of Lignin in production of lignocellulosic composites (Proceedings Reprint)
Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), 2011, Stockholm, Sweden
J. Batog, A. Przepiera - Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants, Poznan, Poland

Kraft Lignin recovery and use in the proparation of lignin-based phenol formaldehyde resins for plywood (Proceedings Reprint)
Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), 2011, Stockholm, Sweden
L. Kousini, M. Paleologou, Y. Fang, Yaolin Zhang, X-M. Wang - FPInnovations, Pointe-Claire and Quebec, Canada
B. Ahvazi, J. Hawari - Biotechnology Research Institute, Montreal, Canada

Study concerning the interaction of birch veener with copper complexes of Lignin and its derivatives (Poster)
European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp (EWLP), 2010, Hamburg, Germany
V.I. Popa , A-M. Capraru
- "Gheorghe Asachi" Technical University of Iasi, Romania
E. Ungureanu - University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicind, Iasi, Romania

The challenge of bio-adhesives for the wood composite industries (Paper)
Biosynergy project 2008, 9th Pacific Rim Symposium, Rotorua, November 2008
E. Papadopoulou, P. Nakos, S. Tsiantzi, E. Athanassiadou - CHIMAR HELLAS S.A., Thessaloniki, Greece

Composites based on natural resources: lignocelluloses, Lignins and Furans (Paper)
Ecobinders project 2008
N. Popa - SC Fibresin SA of Iasi Calea Chisinaului, Iasi, Romania
R. Todirica, V. I. Popa - Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania

New aspects concerning formulation of Furan and Lignin-based bio-adhesive (Paper)
Ecobinders project 2008
F. Ciolacu, V.I. Popa - Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania

Rigid polyurethane foams from Lignin-based polyols (Proceedings Reprint)
Rigid polyurethane foams from Lignin-based polyols (Poster)
Times of Polymers (TOP) and Composites, 2008, Ischia, Italy
Carolina Cateto, Filomena Barreiro - Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Portugal
Alirio Rodriguez - Porto University, Portugal
Naceur Belgacem - EFPG-INPG, St.Martin d'Hères, France

Furfuryl alcohol in adhesive systems (Paper)
Ecobinders project 2007, Cellulose Chemistry and Technology 41 (2-3), 119-123
V.I. Popa, E. Ungureanu, T. Todorciuc - Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania

Performance of two non-wood soda Lignin derivatives in Oriented Strandboard powder phenolic adhesives (Proceedings Reprint)
ILI Forum 8, Rome 2007 and Ecobinders project
J.H. Lora - Granit Recherche Développement SA, Switzerland
Q. Wu - Louisiana Forest Products Development Center, USA

Oxypropylation of Lignins (Slides)
Oxypropylation of Lignins (Proceedings Reprint)

ILI Forum 8, Rome 2007
C.A. Cateto, M.F. Barreiro - Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Portugal
A.E. Rodrigues - Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Portugal
M.N. Belgacem - École Française de Papeterie et des Industries Graphiques (EFPG-INPG), France

Lignin low molar mass fractions involvement in the synthesis of PF matrices (Proceedings Reprint)
ILI Forum 8, Rome 2007
N. Gabilondo, C. Pena, A Tejado, J. Labidi, I. Mondragon - University of the Basque Country, Spain
H. Wedin - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

New Materials from Lignin (Paper)
Workshop in the frame of the EU project WOODPRO, 2005, Riga, Latvia
C. Bonini, M. D'Auria - Universita della Basilicata, Potenza, Italy

Advanced application of Lignin-based adhesives (Paper)
Workshop in the frame of the EU project WOODPRO, 2005, Riga, Latvia
G. Shulga - Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry, Riga , Latvia

Lignin - Component of complex materials (Paper)
Workshop in the frame of the EU project WOODPRO, 2005, Riga, Latvia
G. Cazacu, C. Vasile - "Petru Poni" Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi, Romania

Monitoring of Lignin-based polyurethane synthesis by FTIR-ATR (Slides)
Monitoring of Lignin-based polyurethane synthesis by FTIR-ATR (Proceedings Reprint)
ILI Forum 7, Barcelona 2005
C.A. Cateto, M.F. Barreiro - Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Portugal
A.E. Rodrigues - Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Portugal

Low cost steam exploded Lignin from straw: degradation and use (Proceedings Reprint)
ILI Forum 5, Bordeaux 2000
C. Bonini, M. D'Auria - Università della Basilicata, Potenza, Italy

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