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Among the miscellaneous applications are the production of bulk chemicals (mainly phenols in the case of lignin), preparation of carbon fibers, of activated carbon, but also energy use of lignin (powders or liquified/dissolved lignins for powerplants and mobile engines) and uses of lignin for agglomeration (pelletising aids, dust binder) and as fillers (in polymers, inks, paints and varnishes etc).
The production of bulk chemicals out of lignin needs a depolymerisation process. Candidates are pyrolysis, gasification, catalytic cracking etc. After many studies in the 1980ies and early 1990ies, recently several groups started to work intensely on this topic in the context of new biorefineries. The main challange is to find ways to increase the processes' selectivity for specific monomers and/or to find ways to efficiently use complex mixtures of different polymers.

The production of carbon fibers from lignin has its basis in studies carried out in 1975 and has led to the current situation whereby carbon fibres from a commercially available kraft lignin, without any chemical modification, by thermal spinning followed by carbonization. This procedure has been adopted commercially with lignin based carbon fibres, Kayacarbon, developed and made commercially available by Nippon Kayaku Co. on a pilot scale. The process involved carbonization of dry-spun fibers from lignin dissolved in an alkali solution with poly(vinyl alcohol) added as a plasticizer. Since then there have been further modifications to the process and multiple work also in the US and Europe. An earlier study which evaluated lignin production from renewable and recycled streams showed that 10% of U.S. lignin is sufficient to produce enough carbon fibre to replace half of the steel in all domestic passenger transport vehicles.

References on the latter topic as well on other miscellaneous uses can be found in Malherbe 2010, p. 10.
Summaries, Overviews and Priority Papers
Lignin chemistry and selected applications (Overview paper)
p.10, Internal work for ILI Umbrella 2010
Roger Malherbe, Alfred Abächerli - ILI, Lausanne, Switzerland
Carbon fibers from UV-assisted stabilization of Lignin-based precursors (Paper)
Fibers, 2015
M. Zhang, J. Jin, A.A. Ogale - Clemson University, U.S.A.
Carbon fibres from Lignin (Proceedings)
Northern Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), Stockholm 2014
E. Sjöholm - Innventia, Stockholm, Sweden
Method for stabilizing Lignin fiber for further conversion to carbon fiber (Patent)
WO2013112100 A1, 2013
E. Sjöholm, G. Gellerstedt, R. Drougge, I. Brodin - Innventia Ab, Stockholm, Sweden

Lignin based carbon fibres – recent progress (Proceedings Reprint)
Northern Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), Helsinki 2012
E. Sjöholm, R. Drougge - Innventia, Stockholm, Sweden

Development of softwood kraft Lignin based carbon fibers (Thesis)
Licentiate Thesis, 2012
Ylva Nordström- Lulea University of Technology, Sweden

Carbon fibers from Kraft Lignin (PhD)
Doctoral Thesis, 2012, KTH Stockholm, Sweden
Ida Norberg- KTH Stockholm, Sweden

Lignin for carbon fibres (Proceedings Reprint)
Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), 2011, Stockholm, Sweden
Y. Nordström, E. Sjöholm, I. Brodin, R. Drougge, G. Gellerstedt - Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden

The wood-based biorefinery: A source of carbon fiber? (Paper)
The Open Agriculture Journal, 2010
G. Gellerstedt, E. Sjöholm, I. Brodin - Innventia, Stockholm, Sweden

Chemical properties and themal behaviour of Kraft Lignin (PhD)
Carbon Fibre p.22, Licentiate Thesis, 2009, KTH Stockholm, Sweden
Ida Brodin- KTH Stockholm, Sweden

Characteristics of Lignin blends intended for carbon fibre production (Proceedings Reprint)
European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp (EWLP), 2008, Stockholm, Sweden
Ida Brodin, G. Gellerstedt - Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden
Elisabeth Sjöholm - STFI-Packforsk, Stockholm, Sweden

Lignin and cellulose precursors for novel carbon fibre production (Proceedings)
14th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp (EWLP), Grenoble, France, 2016
C. Rossberg, M. Leschinsky - Fraunhofer Center for Chemical-Biotechnological Processes (CBP), Leuna, Germany
R. Janzon, B. Saake - Hamburg University, Germany
Preparation of carbon adsorbents from technical Lignins by phosphoric acid activation (Proceedings)
Northern Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), Stockholm 2014
A.M. Puziy, M. Myglovets, O.I. Poddubnaya - Institute for Sorption and Problems of Endoecology, Kyiv, Ukraine
O. Sevastyanova, M. E. Lindström - The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden
B. Gawdzik, M. Sobiesiak - Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin, Poland
Carbonised adsorbents from softwood kraft Lignin (Proceedings)
Northern Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), Stockholm 2014
J. Li - Innventia AB, Stockholm, Schweden

From Lignins to aromatic synthons by base catalysed degradation in continuous reactors – a tentative review (Proceedings Reprint)
Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), 2012, Helsinki, Finland
D. Schmiedl, S. Endisch, D. Rückert -
Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology, Pfinztal, Germany
G. Unkelbach - Fraunhofer Center for Chemical and Biotechnological Processes, Leuna, Germany

Two-step approach for the conversion of kraft lignin into aromatic chemicals using acidic oxidation followed by hydrogenolysis (Proceedings Reprint)
Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), 2011, Stockholm, Sweden
T. Pielhop, H. Werhan, Ph. R. von Rohr - Institute of Process Engineering, ETH Zürich, Switzerland

Catalytic pyrolysis of lignin for the production of high added value chemicals and fuels (Proceedings Reprint)
Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), 2011, Stockholm, Sweden
K. Kalogiannis, S. Stefanidis, A.A. Lappas - CERTH/CPERI, Thermi-Thessaloniki Greece
M. Stöcker, L. Hannevold and Aud I. Spjelkavik - SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Oslo, Norway
F.Öhman, INNVENTIA AB, Stockholm, Sweden

Lignin extraction, purification and depolymerization study (PhD)
PhD 2012
A. Toledano - University of the Basque Country, San Sebastian, Spain
p.99 Lignin depolymerization

Lignin depolymerization under flowing hydrogen (Proceedings Reprint)
Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), 2011, Stockholm, Sweden
A. Gohrbandt, J. Appelt, M. Bremer, S. Fischer - Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Plant and Wood Chemistry, Tharandt, Germany

A process for the complete valorization of Lignin into aromatic chemicals based on acidic oxidation (PhD)
Dissertation, 2013
H. Werhan - ETH Zürich, Switzerland
Acidic oxidation of kraft Lignin into aromatic monomers catalyzed by transition metal salts (Paper)
Holzforschung, 2011
H. Werhan, J.M. Mir, T. Voitl, P.R. von Rohr - ETH Zürich, Switzerland
Valorization of Lignin by fractionating its oxidation products using organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) (Poster)
12th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp (EWLP), Helsinki 2012
H. Werhan, A. Farshori and Ph.R. von Rohr - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Switzerland

Catalytic oxidation of Kraft Lignin by aqueous polyoxometalates (Poster)
Catalytic oxidation of Kraft Lignin by aqueous polyoxometalates (Proceedings Reprint)
Italic 5 and COST FP0602, Varenna Italy, 2009
H. Werhan, T. Voitl, P. R. von Rohr - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Switzerland

Lignin conversion into biobased chemicals (Slides)
BioEnergy IV: Innovations in Biomass Conversion for Heat, Power, Fuels and Chemicals, 2013
P. Palmisano, A. Bogliano - Chemtex,
Otranto, Italia

Fast catalytic pyrolysis of Lignin (Proceedings Reprint)
Northern Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), Helsinki 2012
Dong Jin Suh, Chang Soo Kim - Clean Energy Research Center, Seoul, Korea
R. Dhimas D.P - University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea

LIBRA, a novel pyrolysis-based Lignin biorefinery approach for
the production of phenolic chemicals and biochar (Proceedings Reprint)

Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), 2011, Stockholm, Sweden
P.J. de Wild, W.J.J. Huijgen, R.R. van der Laan, J.W. van Hal, C.M. Daza
Montano, J.H. Reith, H. den Uil - Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten, The Netherlands.

Lignin pyrolysis for profitable lignocellulosic biorefineries (Paper)
Biofuels, Bioproducts, and Biorefining (Biofpr), 2014
P.J. de Wild, W.J.J. Huijgen - ECN, Petten, The Netherlands
R.J.A. Gosselink, Wageningen UR,, The Netherlands
Pyrolysis of wheat straw-derived organosolv Lignin (Paper)
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 2012
P.J. de Wild, W.J.J. Huijgen - ECN, Petten, The Netherlands
H.J. Heeres - University of Groningen, The Netherlands

Lignin depolymerization under supercritical process conditions (Poster)
LignoValue project and Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), 2008, Stockholm, Sweden
R.J.A. Gosselink, E. de Jong, E. Scott and J. Sanders - Agrotechnology and Food Innovations B.V. (A&F), Wageningen, The Netherlands

Lignin depolymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide/acetone/water fluid for the production of aromatic chemicals (PhD)
p.125-144, in PhD Thesis 2011: Lignin as a renewable aromatic resource for the chemical industry
R. Gosselink - Wageningen University, The Netherlands

Developing solvolytic conversion of Lignin-to-Liquid (LtL) fuel components: Optimization of quality and process factors (Paper)
Cellulose chemistry and technology (CCT) 2011
M. Kleinert, J.R. Gasson, A.-M. Hilmen, T. Barth - University of Bergen, Norway
I. Eide - Statoil Research Centre, Trondheim, Norway

Fast pyrolysis of Lignin - Aston Round Robin results (Poster)
ILI Workshop, Zürich/Dübendorf 2008
M.E. Gyftopoulou, D.J. Nowakowski, G. Jiang, A.V. Bridgwater - Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Biomass Pyrolysis for Chemicals (PhD)
PhD 2011
P.J. de Wild - Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten, the Netherlands

Activated carbon from renewable resources - Lignin (Paper)
Cellulose chemistry and technology (CCT) 2011
S. Ragan - Jacobi Carbons Ltd, Moss Estate Leigh, UK
N. Megonnell - Jacobi Carbons Inc., Columbus, USA
Preparation of activated carbon from Lignin obtained by straw pulping by KOH and K2CO3 chemical activation (Paper)
Cellulose chemistry and technology (CCT) 2012
X.-J. Jin, Z.-M. Yu, Y. Wu - Beijing Forestry University, China
X.-J. Jin - Shandong Polytechnic University, Jinan, China
Carbonisation of particles from organosolv Lignin (Proceedings)
14th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp (EWLP), Grenoble, France, 2016
J. Köhnke, S. Veigel, G. Emsenhuber, F. Liebner, W. Gindl-Altmutter- Boku-University of Natural Resources and Life Science Vienna, Tulln, Austria
C. Fürst, A. raj Mahendran - Kompetenzzentrum Holz GmbH, Linz, Austria
H. Rennhofer, H.C. Lichtenegger - Boku-University of Natural Resources and Life Science Vienna, Vienna, Austria
J. Keckes - University of Leoben, Austria
Kraft Lignin depolymerization in near-critical water: effect of changing co-solvent (Proceedings)
Northern Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), Stockholm 2014
T. Belkheiri, L. Vamling, L.-E. Amand, T.D.H. Nguyen, M. Maschietti, S.-I. Andersson, H. Theliander - Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden
L. Olausson - Valmet Power AB, Gothenburg, Sweden

An integrated process to produce vanillin and Lignin-based polyurethanes from Kraft Lignin (Paper)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 2009
C.A. Cateto, M.F. Barreiro - Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Portugal
E.A. Borges da Silva, M. Zabkova, J.D. Araujo, A.E. Rodriguez - Porto University, Portugal
M.N. Belgacem - EFPG-INPG, St.Martin d'Hères, France

Catalytic hydroprocessing of Lignin under thermal and ultrasound conditions (Paper)
Catalysis today, 2012
Kenneth B.H. Finch, Ryan M. Richards - Colorado School of Mines, Golden, USA
Aurore Richel - University of Liege, Gembloux, Belgium
Andrei V. Medvedovici, Marian Verziu, Simona M. Coman, Vasile I. Parvulescu - University of Bucharest, Romania
N. G. Gheorghe - National Institute of Materials Physics, Magurele-Ilfov, Romania

Lignin valorisation by (catalytic) fast pyrolysis (Slides)
Lignin valorisation by (catalytic) fast pyrolysis (Poster)
ILI Workshop, Zürich/Dübendorf 2008 and LignoValue project
P.J. de Wild - Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten, the Netherlands

Recent Postings
Lignin and cellulose precursors for novel carbon fibre production (Proceedings)
14th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp (EWLP), Grenoble, France, 2016
C. Rossberg, M. Leschinsky - Fraunhofer Center for Chemical-Biotechnological Processes (CBP), Leuna, Germany
R. Janzon, B. Saake - Hamburg University, Germany
Carbonisation of particles from organosolv Lignin (Proceedings)
14th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp (EWLP), Grenoble, France, 2016
J. Köhnke, S. Veigel, G. Emsenhuber, F. Liebner, W. Gindl-Altmutter- Boku-University of Natural Resources and Life Science Vienna, Tulln, Austria
C. Fürst, A. raj Mahendran - Kompetenzzentrum Holz GmbH, Linz, Austria
H. Rennhofer, H.C. Lichtenegger - Boku-University of Natural Resources and Life Science Vienna, Vienna, Austria
J. Keckes - University of Leoben, Austria
Carbon fibers from UV-assisted stabilization of Lignin-based precursors (Paper)
Fibers, 2015
M. Zhang, J. Jin, A.A. Ogale - Clemson University, U.S.A.
Lignin pyrolysis for profitable lignocellulosic biorefineries (Paper)
Biofuels, Bioproducts, and Biorefining (Biofpr), 2014
P.J. de Wild, W.J.J. Huijgen - ECN, Petten, The Netherlands
R.J.A. Gosselink, Wageningen UR,, The Netherlands
A process for the complete valorization of Lignin into aromatic chemicals based on acidic oxidation (PhD)
Dissertation, 2013
H. Werhan - ETH Zürich, Switzerland
Method for stabilizing Lignin fiber for further conversion to carbon fiber (Patent)
WO2013112100 A1, 2013
E. Sjöholm, G. Gellerstedt, R. Drougge, I. Brodin - Innventia Ab, Stockholm, Sweden
Lignin conversion into biobased chemicals (Slides)
BioEnergy IV: Innovations in Biomass Conversion for Heat, Power, Fuels and Chemicals, 2013
P. Palmisano, A. Bogliano - Chemtex,
Otranto, Italia
Development of softwood kraft Lignin based carbon fibers (Thesis)
Licentiate Thesis, 2012
Ylva Nordström- Lulea University of Technology, Sweden
Pyrolysis of wheat straw-derived organosolv Lignin (Paper)
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 2012
P.J. de Wild, W.J.J. Huijgen - ECN, Petten, The Netherlands
H.J. Heeres - University of Groningen, The Netherlands
Acidic oxidation of kraft Lignin into aromatic monomers catalyzed by transition metal salts (Paper)
Holzforschung, 2011
H. Werhan, J.M. Mir, T. Voitl, P.R. von Rohr - ETH Zürich, Switzerland
The wood-based biorefinery: A source of carbon fiber? (Paper)
The Open Agriculture Journal, 2010
G. Gellerstedt, E. Sjöholm, I. Brodin - Innventia, Stockholm, Sweden

An integrated process to produce vanillin and Lignin-based polyurethanes from Kraft Lignin (Paper)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 2009
C.A. Cateto, M.F. Barreiro - Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Portugal
E.A. Borges da Silva, M. Zabkova, J.D. Araujo, A.E. Rodriguez - Porto University, Portugal
M.N. Belgacem - EFPG-INPG, St.Martin d'Hères, France

Database
Upscaling of the lignin-to-liquid solvolytic conversion to 5-L scale (Proceedings)
Northern Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), Stockholm 2014
T. Barth, S. Ghoreshi and H. Derribsa - University of Bergen, Norway

Assessment on phenolic profile of hawthorn (Crateagus spp.) (Proceedings Reprint)
Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), 2011, Stockholm, Sweden
V. I. Popa, I. Ignat, I. Volf - "Gheorghe Asachi" Technical University of Iasi, Romania

Potential lignin products from the wood biorefinery (Proceedings Reprint)
Activated Carbon, p. 154, Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference (NWBC), 2011, Stockholm, Sweden
K. Lindgren, F. Alvarado, K. Olander, F. Öhman- Innventia AB, Stockholm, Schweden

Acidic oxidation of Kraft Lignin and Lignosulphonates (Poster)
ILI Workshop, Zürich/Dübendorf 2008
T. Voitl, P. R. von Rohr - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Switzerland

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